Confined Space Entry Policy

Confined Spaces Summary
Permit Required Confined Spaces Entry Guidelines


BYU-Idaho Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Policy

Table of Contents
Basis/Justification

1.0 Purpose
2.0 Scope
3.0 References
4.0 General Rules
5.0 Training
6.0 Confined Space Entry Permit
7.0 Isolating and Controlling Hazardous Energy
8.0 Cleaning and Purging Equipment
9.0 Ventilating the Confined Space
10.0 Gas Testing the Confined Space Atmosphere
11.0 Identifying Physical Hazards
12.0 Duties of Supervisors/Attendant/Entrant
13.0 Rescue, Retrieval, and Emergency Services
14.0 Respiratory Protection
15.0 Outside Servicing or Contractor Personnel
16.0 Annual Audits
17.0 Definitions

0.0 BASIS/JUSTIFICATION

The administration of BYU-Idaho recognizes that "Confined Spaces" can be dangerous, even potentially lethal work areas. Personnel can be exposed to a wide range of atmospheric, chemical, explosion, mechanical, and electrical hazards. And in the event of an accident, rescue may be both difficult and dangerous. Because of a commitment to provide a safe and healthful work place, and to comply with OSHA safety standards, the Permit Required Confined Space Entry (PRCSE) program, described hereafter, is implemented as institutional policy.

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1.0 PURPOSE

The purpose of the "Permit-Required Confined Space Entry" (PRCSE) program is to establish a working standard at BYU-Idaho which includes the following elements:

1.1 Establish a program for minimizing permit space hazards and for regulating employee entry into permit spaces.

1.2 Evaluation of all workplaces to determine what spaces are subject to PRCSE rules.

1.3 Inform all university employees and/or contractor personnel who may be exposed to the hazards of PRCSE, and of the existence and location of these spaces.

1.4 Train "qualified" employees as "Entry Supervisors", "Authorized Entrants", "Attendants", and the "Permit-Required Confined Space Rescue Team".

1.5 Establish a PRCSE permit system specifying, in writing, the location and type of work to be done, personnel who will be entering the PRCSE work area, certifying that all existing hazards have been evaluated by a qualified person, and that necessary protective measures have been taken to insure the safety of each individual.

1.6 Provide the necessary equipment to work in PRCSE areas, and if required, to rescue employees during a contingency in any of these areas.

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2.0 SCOPE

BYU-Idaho facilities which may be categorized as PRCSE include, but are not limited to, the following areas:

(a) Service tunnel system
(b) Boilers, ducts, flues, and coal bunkers at the Heating Plant
(c) Transformer vaults.
(d) Manholes, other vaults (Sewer, Water and Electrical)
(e) Granaries, silos, dust collection tanks
(f) Swimming pool chlorination system tanks, surge tanks and sand tanks.
(g) Air handling plenums, ducts and any space with a limited access, or open topped space, more than four (4) feet deep, i.e., trench, tank, or duct.

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3.0 REFERENCES

OSHA General Industry
29 CFR 1910.146 Permit-Required Confined Spaces
29 CFR 1910.120(b)(4)(ii) ("HAZWOPER")
29 CFR 1910.134 (Respiratory Protection)
29 CFR 1910.147 (Lockout/Tagout)
29 CFR 1910.252(a)(4) (Welding in Confined Space)
29 CFR 1910.252(c)(2) (Welding)
29 CFR 1910.252(c)(9) & (10) (Welding)

OSHA Construction
29 CFR 1926.21(b)(6)(I) (Training ,Protective Equipment)
29 CFR 1926.352(g) (Welding)
29 CFR 1926.353(b)(1) & (2) (Welding-Ventilation)

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4.0 GENERAL RULES 

4.1 Each major work area and/or department having responsibility to install, service and/or maintain mechanical equipment and facilities shall conduct periodic audits to identify confined spaces, and post a warning sign which states: DANGER - PERMIT-REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE, DO NOT ENTER; at each location meeting the requirements of the (PRCS) standard.

4.2 Supervisors in each major work area at BYU-Idaho will address the requirements of this standard according to equipment and facilities that are within their area of responsibility.

4.3 When a confined space is suspected to contain toxic materials, a flammable mixture or where there may be a deficiency of oxygen; appropriate tests shall be made by a qualified person before entry is permitted. Entry will be permitted only after it has been determined that toxic or explosive limits are not exceeded, and the oxygen content is not below 19.5% nor above 23.5% of the total air mixture.

4.4 Where any known or suspected hazardous material is suspected to be found, a Material Safety Data Sheet, or other similar written information, for that substance is required to be kept at the worksite. That written information shall be made available to the medical facility treating the exposed entrant.

4.5 If the atmosphere in a confined space is found to have, or is suspected of having an oxygen deficiency or if it exceeds toxic or flammable limits the area shall be:

(a) Posted with an appropriate warning sign, i.e., KEEP OUT, FLAMMABLE, TOXIC, or OXYGEN DEFICIENT ATMOSPHERE.

(b) Purged and ventilated

(c) Re-checked and found to be clear and safe prior to re-entry

4.6 Cylinders of compressed gas of any type shall not be taken into confined spaces. (SCBA respirators are the only exception).

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5.0 TRAINING

5.1 The University Safety Department will train department supervisors in the "Confined Space Entry" program. The department supervisor will be responsible for the training of all affected personnel. All affected personnel will be trained initially and be retrained annually or as the situation warrants. New university personnel affected by "Confined Space Entry" program will be trained as part of their initial orientation.

5.2 Entry supervisor, attendant, and authorized entrants will be trained in:

Confined Space Hazards, including:
hazardous atmosphere
engulfment
electrical
moving machinery
burns
trips/slips/falls
entrapment

5.3 Training should also include Confined Space Safeguards, Engineering, Work Practice Controls (confined space preparation and isolation, Lock Out/Tag Out, methods of eliminating or controlling atmospheric hazards, procedures to protect entrants from external hazards, procedures to verify that conditions in the confined space are acceptable throughout entry)

5.4 BYU-Idaho Confined Space Entry Program

5.5 Gas Testing Procedures

5.6 Isolation and Control of Hazardous Energy (Lock Out/Tag Out)

5.7 Entry Supervisor, Authorized Entrant, and Attendant duties

5.8 Selection and use of proper personal protective equipment (PPE)

5.9 Communication Procedures for Summoning Rescue and Emergency Services

5.10 Emergency Response, and Rescue.

5.11 Training Records. A training outline and training record will be maintained in departments, with copies forwarded to the University Safety Office.

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6.0 CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PERMIT

6.1 A confined space shall not be entered until it has been determined by a qualified person that it is safe to enter; and a confined space entry permit has been issued to the immediate supervisor and the person or persons who comprise the entry crew. Permits and monitoring equipment shall be issued by the BYU-Idaho Campus Police Division.

6.2 Only qualified personnel who have been trained in the use of atmospheric monitoring and safety equipment and know the requirements of BYU-Idaho Confined Space policy shall administer the confined space entry permit procedure.

6.3 The "Confined Space Entry Permit" will be conspicuously posted at the entrance of the confined space.

6.4 Each person shall be instructed concerning the written instructions on the "Confined Space Entry Permit" and shall be required to observe those regulations for his/her own safety and the well-being of fellow personnel.

6.5 The immediate supervisor of the crew involved in the confined space entry shall remove the permit only after all work is done and all entry personnel have vacated the space.

6.6 The immediate supervisor involved shall forward the canceled permit to the University Safety Department immediately after the job is completed, where it will be kept on file.

6.7 Completing the Entry Permit

6.7.1 The entry permit must be completed and signed by the entry supervisor. The permit must clearly identify:

(1) Location of the confined space;

(2) Purpose of entry and scope of work;

(3) Authorized date and duration of entry;

(4) Measures to isolate the space and eliminate or control hazards;

(5) Initial and periodic gas results;

(6) List of entry requirements and safe work practices;

(7) Communication procedures and rescue;

(8) Other required permits;

(9) Entrant log;

(10) Attendant signature.

6.8 Closing Out the Permit

6.8.1 When entry work is complete, or the space must be left unattended, the permit must be voided (canceled), entry into the space closed, or barricaded, and signed "DO NOT ENTER".

6.8.2 Permits must be returned to University Safety Office after being closed out (canceled), where they will be kept on file for one year.

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7.0 ISOLATING AND CONTROLLING HAZARDOUS ENERGY

7.1 All energized systems that are being serviced, including: electrical, steam, hydraulic, chemical, compressed air, gas, or other systems that might unexpectedly, improperly or accidentally be energized; should be "Locked out" according to BYU-Idaho Lockout/Tagout policy.

7.2 All lines entering and leaving a vessel must be isolated to prevent re-entry of flammable or toxic liquids or gases. Pipes or equipment to be disassembled or opened as part of vessel entry or hot work shall be first brought to "safe energy state".

7.3 Contents of the vessel must be identified and safeguards including the use of proper PPE shall be done prior to breaking lines or opening the equipment.

7.4 Lighting/Electrical

7.4.1 All 110 volt cord connected lighting must be grounded and service outlets must be of the three contact type. In addition ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) must be used where wet conditions exist.

7.4.2 All lighting/tools/ventilating equipment used in confined spaces containing or potentially containing flammable vapors or combustible dusts shall be approved respectively for Class I, Division I or Class II, Division I hazardous locations (explosion proof). This includes low voltage lighting such as drop lights, flashlights, etc.

7.4.3 Electrical powered tools used in confined spaces shall be protected through a GFCI or the tool shall be double insulated.

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8.0 CLEANING AND PURGING EQUIPMENT

8.1 The equipment to be entered must be emptied and made as clean and free of residue as possible by hot or cold water flush, steaming, chemical neutralization, or air purge with harmful vapors vented safely away from the work area. Sludge should be removed to the greatest possible degree from the confined space.

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9.0 VENTILATING THE CONFINED SPACE

9.1 Cleaning a vessel often results in the release and accumulation of flammable and harmful vapors. A vessel shall be continuously ventilated if the work in progress creates fumes (i.e. cutting, welding, coating, steaming, removal of sludge). Air movers shall be explosion proof and bonded to the vessel. Oxygen or inert gasses shall not be used to ventilate a confined space which personnel may enter.

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10.0 GAS TESTING THE CONFINED SPACE ATMOSPHERE

10.1 A trained, authorized person shall test the atmosphere to determine the presence of oxygen deficiency, combustible gases and any other hazardous condition which might be suspected (i.e. H2S, CO, SO2, total hydrocarbons).

10.2 Ensure that the atmosphere sampling instrument is functioning properly. Check the battery. Check the sampling for leaks. Calibrate and zero the instrument. Sample the confined space beginning at the top. Sample the entry, then the work area.

10.3 Sample equipment for hot work beginning at the area adjacent to the equipment. Sample the equipment outside, and where possible, inside.

10.4 It should always be remembered that atmosphere conditions can change and that periodic or continuous gas testing may be needed.

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11.0 IDENTIFYING PHYSICAL HAZARDS

11.1 A comprehensive hazard assessment must be conducted and work practices and other safeguards to minimize or control hazards must be completed before entry.

11.2 Physical hazards, such as agitators, steam fittings, drive shafts, gears and other moving parts can pose a danger in confined spaces. Moving equipment must be blocked, locked out and tagged.

11.3 Uneven or wet surfaces and corroded roof tops may pose slip, trip, and fall hazards. Surfaces should be allowed to dry. Fall protection must be used on surfaces which pose a fall hazard.

11.4 Engulfment hazards exist in areas where loose materials are stored. These materials can collapse under the weight of an employee.

11.5 Contact with corrosive chemicals such as acids, solvents, and cleaning solutions can cause serious irritation or burns. Personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect against skin contact and inhalation of these materials must be worn.

11.6 Safety lighting should be used when visibility is poor.

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12.0 DUTIES OF SUPERVISOR, ATTENDANT AND ENTRANT

12.1 Duties of entry supervisors. Every "Entry Supervisor shall:

12.1.1 Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure;

12.1.2 Verify, by checking that the appropriate entries have been made on the permit, that all tests specified by the permit have been conducted and that all procedures and equipment specified by the permit are in place before endorsing the permit and allowing entry to begin;

12.1.3 Terminate the entry and cancels the permit as required.

12.1.4 Verify that rescue services are available and that the means for summoning them are operable;

12.1.5 Remove unauthorized individuals who enter or who attempt to enter the permit space during entry operations; and

12.1.6 Determine, whenever responsibility for a permit space entry operation is transferred and at intervals dictated by the hazards and operations performed within the space, that entry operations remain consistent with terms of the entry permit and that acceptable entry conditions are maintained.

12.2 Duties of Authorized entrants

12.2.1 Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure;

12.2.2 Know the proper use, when necessary, of all of the following types of equipment:

(1) Testing and monitoring equipment

(2) Ventilating equipment

(3) Communications equipment

(4) Personal protective equipment (PPE)

(5) Lighting equipment

(6) Barriers and shields

(7) Equipment used for safe ingress and egress by entrants

(8) Rescue and emergency equipment

(9) Any other equipment necessary for safe entry and/or rescue

12.2.3 Communicate with the attendant as necessary to enable the attendant to monitor entrant status and to enable the attendant to alert entrants of the need to evacuate the space as required.

12.2.4 Alert the attendant whenever:

(1) The entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation, or

(2) The entrant detects a prohibited condition; and

12.2.5 Exit from the permit space as quickly as possible whenever:

(1) An order to evacuate is given by the attendant or the entry supervisor,

(2) The entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation,

(3) The entrant detects a prohibited condition, or

(4) An evacuation alarm is activated.

12.3 Duties of attendants. Every attendant shall:

12.3.1 Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the mode, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure;

12.3.2 Be aware of possible behavioral effects of hazard exposure in authorized entrants;

12.3.3 Continuously maintain an accurate count of authorized entrants in the permit space and ensure that the means used to identify authorized entrants accurately identifies who is in the permit space;

12.3.4 Remain outside the permit space during entry operations until relieved by another attendant;

NOTE: When the attendant has been trained and equipped for rescue operations, attendants may enter a permit space to attempt a rescue if they have been relieved by another authorized attendant.

12.3.5 Communicate with authorized entrants as necessary to monitor entrant status and to alert entrants of the need to evacuate the space under.

12.3.6 Monitor activities inside and outside the space to determine if it is safe for entrants to remain in the space and orders the authorized entrants to evacuate the permit space immediately under any of the following conditions;

(1) If the attendant detects a prohibited condition;

(2) If the attendant detects the behavioral effects of hazard exposure in an authorized entrant;

(3) If the attendant detects a situation outside the space that could endanger the authorized entrants; or

(4) If the attendant cannot effectively and safely perform all of his required duties.

12.3.7 Summon rescue and other emergency services as soon as the attendant determines that authorized entrants may need assistance to escape from permit space hazards;

12.3.8 Take the following actions when unauthorized persons approach or enter a permit space while entry is underway:

(1) Warn the unauthorized persons that they must stay away from the permit space;

(2) Advise the unauthorized persons that they must exit immediately if they have entered the permit space; and

(3) Inform the authorized entrants and the entry supervisor if unauthorized persons have entered the permit space;

12.3.9 Perform non-entry rescues.

12.3.10 Perform no duties that might interfere with the attendant's primary duty to monitor and protect the authorized entrants.

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13.0 RESCUE/RETRIEVAL AND EMERGENCY SERVICES

13.1 Entry

13.1.1 To facilitate non-entry rescue, retrieval systems or methods should be used whenever an authorized entrant enters a PRCS, unless the retrieval equipment would increase the overall risk of entry or would not contribute to the rescue of the entrant. Retrieval systems shall meet the following requirements:

13.1.2 Each authorized entrant shall use a body harness, with a retrieval line attached at the center of the entrant's back near shoulder level, or above the entrants head. Wristlets may be used in lieu of the chest or full body harness if it can be demonstrated that the use of a chest or full body harness is infeasible or creates a greater hazard.

13.1.3 The other end of the retrieval line shall be attached to a mechanical device or fixed point outside the PRCS in such a manner that rescue is necessary. A mechanical device shall be available to retrieve personnel from vertical type PRCS more than 5 feet (1.52m) deep.

13.2 Rescue

13.2.1 "Non-entry" or "external" rescue will be used where feasible. This includes the use of a retrieval of life line attached to a full body harness worn by the entrant or a mechanical retrieval system such as a tripod and winch.

13.2.2 Since most confined space fatalities involve improperly equipped and trained rescuers, attendants will only perform external rescue and assist rescuers from outside the confined space.

13.2.3 The facility rescue team must train and perform a simulated confined space rescue at least once a year. Training shall include:

(1) confined space hazard recognition;

(2) atmosphere testing and evaluation;

(3) use and evaluation of material safety data sheets (MSDS);

(4) use and limitations of personal protective equipment (PPE);

(5) incident command system and confined space communication;

(6) rescue techniques;

(7) self rescue;

(8) patient assessment and care.

NOTE: At no time should any rescuer place himself in a dangerous situation to perform a rescue.

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14.0 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

14.1 Where it is not known if a toxic or oxygen deficient atmosphere exists or if sampling/monitoring indicates that there is a known oxygen deficiency or that toxic limits are exceeded--APPROPRIATE RESPIRATORY PROTECTION MUST BE WORN.

14.2 In areas where there is less than 19.5% oxygen by volume only SCBA's or airline respirators will be used.

14.3 Where toxic limits are exceeded, respiratory protection will be approved by the University Safety Department.

14.4 No one will enter a confined space, at any time, where flammable limits are more than 10% of the LEL (Lower Explosive Limit).

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15.0 OUTSIDE SERVICING OR CONTRACTOR PERSONNEL

(Multi-employer Worksites)

15.1 Whenever outside servicing or contractor personnel are to be engaged in activities covered by the "Scope" of this program, university personnel and the outside employer shall inform each other of their respective "Confined Space Entry" procedures.

15.2 Authorized university personnel will issue all confined space entry permits. All co contractors whose work will involve entry into confined spaces must train their personnel in BYU-Idaho PRCS program requirements. By signing the Confined Space Entry Permits the contractor acknowledges that they have read, understood, and will follow all permit requirements.

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16.0 ANNUAL AUDITS

16.1 The University Safety Department will perform annual audits of the "Confined Space Entry" program. Results of this audit will be forwarded to unit supervisors and department directors.

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17.0 DEFINITIONS

Acceptable entry conditions: The conditions that must exist in a permitted space to allow entry and to ensure that employees involved with a PRCSE safely enter into, and work within the space in compliance with all work rules.

Attendant: An individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors the authorized entrants, and who performs all attendant's duties assigned in the employers permit space program.

Authorized entrant: An employee who is authorized to enter a Permit Required Confined Space.

Blanking or Blinding: The absolute closure of a pipe, line or duct by the fastening of a solid plate (such as a spectacle blind or a skillet blind) that completely covers the bore and that is capable of withstanding the maximum pressure of the pipe, line, or duct with no leakage beyond the plate.

Confined Space: A space which:

(1) is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and

(2) has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (for example, tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, and pits are spaces that may have limited means of entry), and

(3) is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

It may be an open topped space more than 4 feet (1.2m) deep. A confined space may have an oxygen deficient (less than 19.5% oxygen) or oxygen enriched (greater than 23%) atmosphere, an accumulation of flammable vapors (in excess of 10% of the LFL), toxic gasses, or other safety and/or health hazards. Examples of confined spaces include, but are not limited to: storage tanks, process vessels, storage bins, boilers and flues, ventilation and exhaust ducts, utility vaults, elevator pits, manholes, tunnels and trenches.

Double Block and Bleed: The closure of a line, duct, or pipe by closing and locking or tagging two in line valves and by opening and locking or tagging a drain or vent valve in the line between the two closed valves.

Emergency: Any occurrence (including any failure of hazard control or monitoring equipment) or event internal or external to the permit space that could endanger entrants.

Engulfment: The surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance that can be aspirated to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing.

Entry: The action by which a person passes through an opening into a PRCSE. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space [This is OSHAs' definition quoted verbatim from 29 CFR 1910.146(b)].

Entry Permit: The written or printed document that is provided by the employer to allow and control entry into a permit space and that contains:

(1) The permit space to be entered

(2) The purpose of entry

(3) The date and the authorized duration of the entry permit

(4) The authorized entrants within the permit space, by name or by such other means as will enable the attendant to determine quickly and accurately, for the duration of the permit, which authorized entrants are inside the permit space.

(5) The personnel, by name, currently serving as attendants.

(6) The individual, by name, currently serving as entry supervisor, with a space for the signature or initials of the entry supervisor who originally authorized entry.

(7) The hazards of the permit space to be entered.

(8) The measures used to isolate the permit space and to eliminate or control permit space hazards before entry. These measures include but are not limited to: Lock Out/Tag Out, purging, inerting, ventilating, and flushing permit spaces.

(9) The acceptable entry conditions.

(10) The results of initial and periodic tests performed, accompanied by the names or initials of the testers and by an indication of when the tests were performed.

(11) The rescue and emergency services that can be summoned and the means (such as the equipment to use and the numbers to call) for summoning those services.

(12) The communication procedures used by authorized entrants and attendants to maintain contact during the entry.

(13) Equipment, such as personal protective equipment, testing equipment, communications equipment, alarm systems, and rescue equipment, to be provided for compliance.

(14) Any other information whose inclusion is necessary, given the circumstances of the particular confined space, in order to ensure employee safety.

(15) Any additional permits, such as for hot work, that have been issued to authorize work in the permit space.

Entry Supervisor: The person (such as the employer, foreman, or crew chief) responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for terminating entry as required by this section.

NOTE: An entry supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as long as that person is trained and equipped as required by this section for each role he or she fills. Also, the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one individual to another during the course of an entry operation.

Hazardous atmosphere: An atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), injury, or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:

(1) Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);

(2) Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL; NOTE: This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet (1.52 m) or less.

(3) Atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;

(4) Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is published in Subpart G, Occupational Health and Environmental Control, or in Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, of this Part and which could result in employee exposure in excess of its dose or permissible exposure limit;

NOTE: An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.

(5) Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health.

NOTE: For air contaminants for which OSHA has not determined a dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Material Safety Data Sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, section 1910.1200 of this Part, published information, and internal documents can provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.

Hot work permit: The employer's written authorization to perform operations (for example; riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition.

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH): Any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space.

NOTE: Some materials -- hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example -- may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72 hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient effects until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health.

Inerting: The displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible.

NOTE: This procedure produces an IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere.

Isolation: The process by which a permit space is removed from service and completely protected against the release of energy and material into the space by such means as:

(1) blanking or blinding;

(2) misaligning or removing sections of lines, pipes, or ducts;

(3) a double block and bleed system;

(4) lockout or tagout of all sources of energy; or

(5) blocking or disconnecting all mechanical linkages.

Line breaking: The intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or any fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable of causing injury.

Non-permit confined space: A confined space that does not contain or, with respect to atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm.

Oxygen deficient atmosphere: An atmosphere containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume.

Oxygen enriched atmosphere: An atmosphere containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen by volume.

Permit-required confined space (permit space): A confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:

(1) Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;

(2) Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant;

(3) Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or

(4) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.

Permit-required confined space program (permit space program): The employer's overall program for controlling, and, where appropriate, for protecting employees from, permit space hazards and for regulating employee entry into permit spaces.

Permit system: The employer's written procedure for preparing and issuing permits for entry and for returning the permit space to service following termination of entry.

Prohibited condition: Any condition in a permit space that is not allowed by the permit during the period when entry is authorized.

Rescue service: The personnel designated to rescue employees from permit spaces. (Rexburg/Madison Fire Department-Telephone: 359-3010 or 911)

Retrieval system: The equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full-body harness, wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non-entry rescue of persons from permit spaces.

Testing: The process by which the hazards that may confront entrants of a permit space are identified and evaluated. Testing includes specifying the tests that are to be performed in the permit space.

NOTE: Testing enables employers both to devise and implement adequate control measures for the protection of authorized entrants and to determine if acceptable entry conditions are present immediately prior to, and during, entry.

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