## Math 100L: Lesson 9

### Flashcard Vocabulary

• to compound (v)
• to involve (v)
• function (n)
• benefit (n)
• to accumulate (v)
• impact (n)
• feature (n)

• to recall (v)
• calculation (n)
• Nper (n)
• PV (n)
• versus (prep)
• lump sum (n)
• balance (n)
• loan (n)
• bondage (n)
• to deposit (v)
• reitrement (n)
• welfare (n)
• to donate (v)
• to cherish (v)
• fellowman (n)
• devotion (n)
• plea (n)
• afflicted (n)
• abundance (n)
• to impart (v)
• portion (n)
• needy (n)
• torment (n)
• bound (v)
• to hang on (v)
• fountain (n)
• to proclaim (v)
• to overlook (v)
• to incline (v)
• essence (n)
• to ensure (v)
• fulfilment (n)
• flesh (n)
• to complement (v)
• counterfeit (n)
• progression (n)
• to overflow (v)
• to flood (v)
• to assess (v)
• damage (n)
• telegram (n)
• fence (n)
• to haul (v)
• hay (n)
• to level (v)
• to alleviate (v)
• enlisted (n)
• to stretch (v)
• distress (n)
• succor (n)
• expert (n)
• to deprive (v)
• to render (v)
• face it (phrasal verb)
• stream (n)
• poverty (n)
• sorrow (n)
• to undergird (v)
• facet (n)
• congregation (n)
• sleeve (n)
• to neglect (v)
• to intertwine (v)

### Speaking Partner Visit: Verb “To Do” More Pronunciation

 You learned about the verb “to do” last week. Let’s review the use of this verb. To do is one of the most common verbs in English. It has many uses. It can be used as a helping verb and a main verb as well as in questions and negative statements. It is important for you to become comfortable and familiar with this word, as it is used so often in English speaking. Learn the different forms of the verb to do. Uses of “to do” Helping Verb: When used as a helping verb, “do” is always followed by the base form of the main verb. I do go often to the library to study. I do want to go with you. Main Verb: When used as a main verb, “do” means to perform, to work, to act. The difference between the verb “to do” and “to make” can be confusing. Use the verb “do” when speaking about things in general; use the verb “make” when speaking about things you can create. (There are some exceptions to this rule, but we will not talk about them right now.) My sister does the dishes. My sister makes a cake. My sister does her homework. My sister makes dinner. Questions: Main verb or helping verb. To do is used as the main verb when asking general questions about what happens, is happening, is going to happen, etc. What are you doing? What have they done? What do you do on Saturdays? To do is used as the helping verb in questions Did she go to class on Monday? Does he want some ice cream too? Do you like math? Negative Statements: To do is very often contracted in negative statements. I don’t like fractions. I didn’t go on Saturday. He doesn’t eat meat. There is an interesting LDS story about the verb “to do.” At a stake Primary conference in 1957, Spencer W. Kimball heard the song “I am a Child of God.” After hearing the song, President Kimball asked the Primary leaders if the lines “Teach me all that I must know / To live with him someday” could be changed to “Teach me all that I must do / To live with him someday.” President Kimball later explained, “To know isn’t enough. The devils know and tremble; the devils know everything. We have to do something.”

Discussion Questions

• What new things did you learn about the verb “to do”?
• If your speaking partner is from the United States, ask him/her to tell you about the words “I do” in American wedding ceremonies outside the temple.

Try to fill in the blanks yourself and ask your speaking partner to help if you aren't sure of any answers.

• My mother likes chocolate ice cream, but she ______ like vanilla ice cream.
• These two companies ________ like to ________ business with each other.
• _______ the cat like to sleep on the sofa?
• Where ______ my brother put his CDs?
• My brother loves to watch soccer but he _______ like to watch basketball.
• My classmates _______ a cake for my birthday.

Pronunciation Practice

Reduced pronunciation: “and,” “or”

In spoken English, the words “and” and “or” have reduced pronunciation. The reduced pronunciations are standard English, not slang. You will understand English better if you are familiar with how these reduced words sound.

AND

And is pronounced like the letter n. It sounds like the ending of “driven” and is connected to the preceding word.
Examples:

• paper n pencil
• bacon n eggs

OR

Or is pronounced like the letter r. It sounds like the ending of “bigger” and is also connected to the preceding word.
Examples:

• right r wrong
• rain r snow
• one r two

The following sentences are from Brother Baird’s video lectures. Read them with the reduced pronunciation for and and or. See if you recognize the reductions from the lectures.

• Two and three gives us five.
• Take two to the 16th power and divide it by two to the 13th power.
• So that means that this and this must be the same thing.
• You can do it one way or the other, it doesn’t matter.
• You can add, subtract, multiply, or divide anything.

Listen to your Speaking Partner say the following phrases with the reduced pronunciation. Repeat the phrases.

Spoken EnglishWritten English
redden white red and white
often on off and on
fallen spring fall and spring
given take give and take
blacker white black or white
runner walk run or walk
cleaner dirty clean or dirty

Practice saying the following numbers:

• (3g2n4p)6
• 160
• 12m5/32m6
• 4-6
• r8r2
• 14x – 3 = 6(x - 4)
• 8m – 4(m + 6) = 13m + 9
• 0053x + .067 - .005x
• 85,678,908
• 13,582
• \$567.89
• 002.83
• 45/67
• 1/3 x 5/16

Years:

• 2011
• 1996
• 1775
• 2006
• 2000
• 2012
• 1968