General Chemistry, 7th Edition

Whitten, Davis, Peck, Stanley


Chemistry 106: Chapter 15-26



15 Chemical Thermodynamics

Heat Changes and Thermochemistry

15-1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

15-2 Some Thermodynamic Terms

15-3 Enthalpy Changes

15-4 Calorimetry

15-5 Thermochemical Equations

15-6 Standard States and Standard Enthalpy Changes

15-7 Standard Moalr Enthalpies of Formation, ΔHf°

15-8 Hess's Law

15-9 Bond Energies

15-10 Changes in Internal Energy, ΔE

15-11 Relationship Between ΔH and ΔE

Spontaneity of Physical and Chemical Changes

15-12 The Two Aspects of Spontaneity

15-13 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

15-14 Entropy, S

15-15 Free Energy Change, ΔG, and Spontaneity

15-16 The Temperature Dependence of Spontaneity


16 Chemical Kinetics

16-1 The Rate of a Reaction

Factors that Affect Reaction Rates

16-2 Nature of the Reactants

16-3 Concentration of Reactants: The Rate-Law Expression

16-4 Concentration Versus Time: The Integrated Rate Equation

  • First-Order Reactions
  • Second-Order Reactions
  • Zero-Order Reaction

16-5 Collision Theory of Reaction Rates

16-6 Transition State Theory

16-7 Reaction Mechanisms and the Rate-Law Expression

16-8 Temperature: The Arrhenius Equation

16-9 Catalysts

  • Homogeneous Catalysis
  • Heterogeneous Catalysis
  • Enzymes as Biological Catalysts


17 Chemical Equilibrium

17-1 Basic Concepts

17-2 The Equilibrium Constant

17-3 Variation of Kc with the Form of the Balanced Equation

17-4 The Reaction Quotient

17-5 Uses of the Equilibrium Constant, Kc

17-6 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Predictions

  • Changes in Concentration
  • Changes in Volume and Pressure
  • Changes in Temperature
  • Addition of a Catalyst

17-7 The Haber Process: A Practical Application of Equilibrium

17-8 Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations

17-9 Partial Pressures and the Equilibrium Constant

17-10 Relationship Between Kp and Kc

17-11 Heterogeneous Equilibria

17-12 Relationship Between ΔGrxn° and the Equilibrium Constant

17-13 Evaluation of Equilibrium Constants at Different Temperatures


18 Ionic Equilibria I: Acids and Bases

18-1 A Review of Strong Electrolytes

18-2 The Autoionization of Water

18-3 The pH and pOH Scales

18-4 Ionization Constants for Weak Monoprotic Acids and Bases

18-5 Polyprotic Acids

18-6 Solvolysis

18-7 Salts of Strong Bases and Strong Acids

18-8 Salts of Strong Bases and Weak Acids

18-9 Salts of Weak Bases and Strong Acids

18-10 Salts of Weak Bases and Weak Acids

  • Salts of Weak Bases and Weak Acids for Which Kb=Ka
  • Salts of Weak Bases and Weak Acids for Which Kb>Ka
  • Salts of Weak Bases and Weak Acids for Which Kba

18-11 Salts that Contain /Small, Highly Charged Cations


19 Ionic Equilibria II: Buffers and Titration Curves

19-1 The Common Ion Effect and Buffer Solutions

  • Weak Acids Plus Salts of Weak Acids
  • Weak Bases Plus Salts of Weak Bases

19-2 Buffering Action

  • Solutions of a Weak Acid and a Salt of the Weak Acid
  • Solutions of a Weak Base and a Salt of the Weak Base

19-3 Preparation of Buffer Solutions

19-4 Acid-Base Indicators

Titration Curves

19-5 Strong Acid/Strong Base Titration Curves

19-6 Weak Acid/Strong Base Titration Curves

19-7 Weak Acid/ Weak Base Titration Curves

19-8 Summary of Acid-Base Calculations


20 Ionic Equilibria III: The Solubility Product Principle

20-1 Solubility Product Constants

20-2 Determination of solubility Product Constants

20-3 Uses of Solubility Product Constants

  • The Common Ion Effect in Solubility Calculations
  • The Reaction Quotient in Precipitation Reactions

20-4 Fractional Precipitation

20-5 Simultaneous Equilibria Involving Slightly Soluble Compounds

20-6 Dissolving Precipitates

  • Converting and Ion to a Weak Electrolyte
  • Converting an Ion to Another Species by a Redox Reaction
  • Complex Ion Formation


21 Electrochemistry

21-1 Electrical Conduction

21-2 Electrodes

Electrolytic Cells

21-3 The Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride (the Downs Cell)

21-4 The Electrolysis of Aqueous Sodium Chloride

21-5 the Electrolysis of Aqueous Sodium Sulfate

21-6 Counting Electrons: Coulometry and Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

21-7 Commercial Applications of Electrolytic Cells

Voltaic of Galvanic Cells

21-8 The construction of Simple Voltaic Cells

21-9 The Zinc-Copper Cell

21-10 The Copper-Silver Cell

Standard Electrode Potentials

21-11 The Standard Hydrogen Electrode

21-12 The Zinc-SHE Cell

21-13 The Copper-SHE Cell

21-14 Standard Electrode Potentials

21-15 Uses of Standard Electrode Potentials

21-16 Standard Electrode Potentials for Other Half-Reactions

21-17 Corrosion

21-18 Corrosion Protection

Effect of Concentrations (or Partial Pressures) on Electrode Potentials

21-19 The Nernst Equation

21-20 Using Electrochemical Cells to Determine Concentrations

21-21 The Relationship of Ecell° to ΔG° and K

Primary Voltaic Cells

21-23 The Lead Storage Battery

21-24 The Nickel-Cadmium (Nicad) Cell

21-25 The Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell


22 Metals I: Metallurgy


22-1 Occurrence of the Metals


22-2 Pretreatment of Ores

22-3 Reduction to the Free Metals

22-4 Refining of Metals

Metallurgies of Specific Metals

22-5 Magnesium

22-6 Aluminum

22-7 Iron

22-8 Copper

22-9 Gold


23 Metals II: Properties and Reactions

23 The Alkali Metals (Group IA)

23-1 Group IA Metals: Properties and Occurrence

23-2 Reactions of the Group IA Metals

23-3 Uses of Group IA Metals and Their Compounds

The Alkaline Earth Metals (Group IIA)

23-4 Group IIA Metals: Properties and Occurrence

23-5 Reactions of the Group IIA Metals

23-6 Uses of Group IIA Metals and Their Compounds

The Post-Transition Metals

23-8 General Properties

23-9 Oxidation States

23-10 Chromium Oxides, Oxyanions, and Hydroxides


24 Some Nonmetals and Metalloids

The Noble Gases (Group VIIIA)

24-1 Occurrence, Uses and Properties

24-2 Xenon Compounds

The Halogens (Group VIIA)

24-3 Properties

24-4 Occurrence, Production, and Uses

24-5 Reactions of the Free Halogens

24-6 The Hydrogen Halides and Hydrohalic Acids

24-7 The Oxoacids (Ternary Acids) of the Halogens

Sulfur, Selenium and Tellurium

24-8 Occurrence, Properties, and Uses

24-9 Reaction of Group VIA Elements

24-10 Hydrides of Group VIA Elements

24-11 Group VIA Oxides

24-12 Oxoacids of Sulfur

Nitrogen and Phosphorus

24-13 Occurrence of Nitrogen

24-14 Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen

24-15 Nitrogen Oxides

24-16 Some Oxoacids of Nitrogen and Their Salts

24-17 Phosphorus


24-18 Silicon and the Silicates


25 Coordination Compounds

25-1 Coordination Compounds

25-2 Ammine Complexes

25-3 Important Terms

25-4 Nomenclature

25-5 Structures

Isomerism in Coordination Compounds

25-6 Structural (Constitutional)

25-7 Stereoisomers

Bonding in Coordination Compounds

25-8 Crystal Field Theory

25-9 Color and the Spectrochemical Series


26 Nuclear Chemistry

26-1 The Nucleus

26-2 Neutron-Proton Ratio and Nuclear Stability

26-3 Nuclear Stability and Binding Energy

26-4 Radioactive Decay

26-5 Equations for Nuclear Reactions

26-6 Neutron-Rich Nuclei (Above the Band of Stability)

26-7 Neutron-Poor Nuclei (Below the Band of Stability)

26-8 Nuclei with Atomic Number Greater Then 83

26-9 Detection of Radiation

26-10 Rates of Decay and Half-Life

26-11 Disintegration Series

26-12 Uses of Radionuclides

26-13 Artificial Transmutation of Elements

26-14 Nuclear Fission

26-15 Nuclear Fission Reactors

26-16 Nuclear Fusion


27 Organic Chemistry I: Formulas, Names, and Properties

Saturated Hydrocarbons

27-1 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

27-2 Naming Saturated Hydrocarbons

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

27-3 Alkenes

27-4 Alkynes

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

27-5 Benzene

27-6 Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons

27-7 Hydrocarbons: A Summary

Functional Groups

27-8 Organic Halides

27-9 Alcohols and Phenols

27-10 Ethers

27-11 Aldehydes and Ketones

27-12 Amines

27-13 Carboxylic Acids

27-14 Some Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids

27-15 Summary of Functional Groups

Fundamental Classes of Organic Reactions

27-16 Substitution Reactions

27-17 Addition Reactions

27-18 Elimination Reactions

27-19 Polymerization Reactions


28 Organic Chemistry II: Shapes, Selected Reactions, and Biopolymers

Shapes of Organic Molecules

28-1 Constitutional Isomers

28-2 Stereoisomers

28-3 Conformations

Selected Reactions

28-4 Reactions of Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

28-5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

28-6 Formation of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

28-7 Hydrolysis of Esters


28-8 Carbohydrates

28-9 Polypeptides and Proteins

28-10 Nucleic Acids