General Chemistry, 7th Edition

Whitten, Davis, Peck, Stanley


Chemistry 105: Chapters 1-14



1 The Foundations of Chemistry

1-1 Matter and Energy

1-2 States of Matter

1-3 Chemical and Physical Properties

1-4 Chemical and Physical Changes

1-5 Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements

1-6 Measurements in Chemistry

1-7 Units of Measurement

1-8 Use of Numbers

1-9 TheUnit Factor Method

1-10 Percentage

1-11 Density and Specific Gravity

1-12 Heat and Temperature

1-13 Heat Transfer and the Measurement of Heat


2 Chemical Formulas and Composition Stoichiometry

2-1 Atoms and Molecules

2-2 Chemical Formulas

2-3 Ions and Ionic Comopunds

2-4 Names and Formulas of some Ionic Compounds

2-5 Atomic Weights

2-6 The Mole

2-7 Formula Weights, Molecular Weights, and Moles

2-8 Percent Composition and Formulas of Compounds

2-9 Derivation of Formulas from Elemental Composition

2-10 Determination of Molecular Formulas

2-11 Some Other Interpretations of Chemical Formulas

2-12 Purity of Samples


3 Chemical Equations and Reaction Stoichiometry

3-1 Chemical Equations

3-2 Calculations Based on Chemical Equations

3-3 The Limiting Reactant Concept

3-4 Percent Yields from Chemical Reactions

3-5 Sequential Reactions

3-6 Concentrations of Solutions

3-7 Dilution of Solutions

3-8 Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions


4 Some Types of Chemical Reactions

4-1 The Periodic Table: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

4-2 Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction

·         Electrolytes and Extent of Ionization

·         Strong and Weak Acids

·         Reversible Reactions

·         Strong Bases, Insoluble Bases, and Weak Bases

·         Solubility Guidelines for Compounds in Aqueous Solution

4-3 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

4-4 Oxidation Numbers

Naming Some Inorganic Compounds

4-5 Naming Binary Compounds

4-6 Naming Ternary Acids and Their Salts

Classifying Chemical Reactions

4-7 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: Introduction

4-8 Combination Reactions

4-9 Decomposition Reactions

4-10 Displacement Reactions

4-11 Metathesis Reactions

·         Acid-Base (Neutralization) Reactions: Formation of a Nonelectrolyte

·         Precipitation Reactions

4-12 Summary of Reaction Types


5 The Structure of Atoms

Subatomic Particles

5-1 Fundamental Particles

5-2 The Discovery of Electrons

5-3 Canal Rays and Protons

5-4 Rutherford and the Nuclear Atom

5-5 Atomic Number

5-6 Neutrons

5-7 Mass Number and Isotopes

5-8 Mass Spectrometry and Isotopic Abundance

5-9 The Atomic Weight Scale and Atomic Weights

The Electronic Structures of Atoms

5-10 Electromagnetic Radiation

5-11 The Photoelectric Effect

5-12 Atomic Spectra and the Bohr Atom

5-13 The Wave Nature of the Electron

5-14 The Quantum mechanical Picture of the Atom

5-15 Quantum Numbers

5-16 Atomic Orbitals

5-17 Electron Configurations

5-18 Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism

5-19 The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations


6 Chemical Periodicity

6-1 More about the Periodic Table

Periodic Properties of the Elements

6-2 Atomic Radii

6-3 Ionization Energy

6-4 Electron Affinity

6-5 Ionic Radii

6-6 Electronegativty

Chemical Reactions and Periodicity

6-7 Hydrogen and the Hydrides

·         Hydrogen

·         Reaction of Hydrogen and Hydrides

6-8 Oxygen and the Oxides

  • Oxygen and Ozone
  • Reactions of Oxygen and the Oxides
  • Combustion Reactions
  • Combustion of Fossil Fuels and Air Pollution


7 Chemical Bonding

7-1 Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms

Ionic Bonding

7-2 Formation of Ionic Compounds

  • Group IA Metals and Group VIIA Nonmetals
  • Group IA Metals and Group VIA Nonmetals
  • Group IIA Metals and Group VI Nonmetals
  • d-Transition Metal Ions
  • Binary Ionic Compounds: A Summary

Covalent Bonding

7-3 Formation of Covalent Bonds

7-4 Lewis Formulas for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions

7-5 Writing Lewis Formulas: The Octet Rule

7-6 Resonance

7-7 Formal Charges

7-8 Writing Lewis Formulas: Limitations of the Octet Rule

7-9 Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

7-10 Dipole Moments

7-11 The Continuous Range of Bonding Types


8 Molecular Structure and Covalent Bonding Theories

8-1 A Preview of the Chapter

8-2 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

8-3 Polar Molecules: The Influence of Molecular Geometry

8-4 Valence Bond Theory

Molecular Shapes and Bonding

8-5 Linear Electronic Geometry: AB2 Sepcies

A. VSEPR Theory

B. Valence Bond Theory

8-6 Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species

A. Experimental Facts and Lewis Formulas

B. VSEPR Theory

C. Valence Bond Theory

8-7 Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species

A. Experimental Facts of Lewis Formulas

B. VSEPR Theory

C. Valence Bond Theory

8-8 Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB3U Species

A. Experimental Facts and Lewis Formulas

B. VSEPR Theory

C. Valence Bond Theory

8-9 Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB2U2 Species

A. Experimental Facts and Lewis Formulas

B. VSEPR Theory

C. Valence Bond Theory

8-10 Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: ABU3 Species

8-11 Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB­5, AB4U, AB3U2, AB2U3

A. Experimental Facts and Lewis Formulas

B. VSEPR Theory

C. Valence Bond Theory

D. Unshared Valence Electron Pairs in Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry

8-12 Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6­, AB5U, and AB4U2

A. Experimental Facts and Lewis Formulas

B. VSEPR Theory

C. Valence Bond Theory

D. Unshared Valence Electron Pairs in Octahedral Electronic Geometry

8-13 Compounds containing Double Bonds

8-14 Compounds Containing Triple Bonds

8-15 A Summary of Electronic and Molecular Geometries


9 Molecular Orbitals in Chemical Bonding

9-1 Molecular Orbitals

9-2 Molecular Orbital Energy Level Diagrams

9-3 Bond Order and Bond Stability

9-4 Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules

9-5 Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

9-6 Delocalization and the Shapes of Molecular Orbitals


10 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases, and Salts

10-1 Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases

10-2 The Arrhenius Theory

10-3 The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion)

10-4 The Bronsted-Lowry Theory

10-5 The Autoionization of Water

10-6 Amphoterism

10-7 Strengths of Acids

Binary Acids

Ternary Acids

10-8 Acid-Base Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

10-9 Acidic Salts and Basic Salts

10-10 The Lewis Theory

10-11 The Preparation of Acids


11 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions II: Calculations

Aqueous Acid-Base Reactions

11-1 Calculations Involving Molarity

11-2 Titrations

11-3 The Mole Method and Molarity

11-4 Equivalent Weights and Normality

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

11-5 The Half-Reaction Method

11-6 Adding H+, OH-, or H2O to Balance Oxygen or Hydrogen

11-7 Stoichiometry of Redox Reactions


12 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

12-1 Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases

12-2 Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases

12-3 Pressure

12-4 Boyle's Law: the Volume-Pressure Relationship

12-5 Charles's Law: The Volume-Temperature Relationship; The Absolute Temperature Scale

12-6 Standard Temperature and Pressure

12-7 The Combined Gas Law Equation

12-8 Avogadro's Law and the Standard Molar Volume

12-9 Summary of Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation

12-10 Determination of Molecular Weights and Molecular Formulas of Gaseous Substances

12-11 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

12-12 Mass-Volume Relationships in Reactions Involving Gases

12-13 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory

12-14 Diffusion and Effusion of Gases

12-15 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideality


13 Liquids and Solids

13-1 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids

13-2 Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes

  • Ion-Ion Interactions
  • Dipole-Dipole Interactions
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Dispersion Forces

The Liquid State

13-3 Viscosity

13-4 Surface Tension

13-5 Capillary Action

13-6 Evaporation

13-7 Vapor Pressure

13-8 Boiling Points and Distillation

13-9 Heat Transfer Involving Liquids

The Solid State

13-10 Melting Point

13-11 Heat Transfer Involving Solids

13-12 Sublimation and the Vapor Pressure of Solids

13-13 Phase Diagrams (P versus T)

13-14 Amorphous Solids and Crystalline Solids

13-15 Structures of Crystals

13-16 Bonding in Solids

  • Metallic Solids
  • Ionic Solids
  • Molecular Solids
  • Covalent Solids

13-17 Band Theory of Metals


14 Solutions

The Dissolution Process

14-1 Spontaneity of the Dissolution Process

14-2 Dissolution of Solids in Liquids

14-3 Dissolution of Liquids in Liquids (Miscibility)

14-4 Dissolution of Gases in Liquids

14-5 Rates of Dissolution and Saturation

14-6 Effect of Temperature on Solubility

14-7 Effect of Pressure on Solubility

14-8 Molality and Mole Fraction

Colligative Properties of Solutions

14-9 Lowering of Vapor Pressure and Raoult's Law

14-10 Fractional Distillation

14-11 Boiling Point Elevation

14-12 Freezing Point Depression

14-13 Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression or Boiling Point Elevation

14-14 Colligative Properties and Dissociation of Electrolytes

14-15 Osmotic Pressure


14-16 The Tyndall Effect

14-17 The Adsorption Phenomenon

14-18 Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids